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Scientific Papers, and Reports on Fog, Fog Collection and Field Project Results


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Copyright Notice
The papers presented here each have a copyright restriction on their use. They are made available for your own personal research purposes. They may not be copied for commercial purposes and may not be inserted, in whole or in part, into other documents without the permission of the copyright holder. Reference to the ideas of the authors of the papers should be properly cited in your publications.

Notes on This Section
This section represents a considerable effort on the part of the volunteer staff of FogQuest to provide an archive of original reports and published papers related to fog collection. In many cases, it is likely that no other copies of the reports are available. We do not endorse the statements in each document or the conclusions reached by the authors. Visitors to this site should make their own critical examination of the results and conclusions. This is especially true of non-peer-reviewed documents such as theses and institutional reports. Several lengthy lists of references on fog collection can also be found elsewhere on the FogQuest website.

Contents:

Overview Studies

Papers per Country

Cabo Verde (Cape Verde)

Canada

Canary Islands (Tenerife) – Spain

Chile

Colombia

Dominican Republic

Ecuador

Ethiopia

Guatemala

Haiti

Israel

Jordan

Kenya

Mexico

Morocco

Namibia

Nepal

Oman (The Sultanate of Oman)

Peru

South Africa

Spain

St Helena

USA

Venezuela

Comparative Studies

Chile – Namibia – Oman

Chile – Peru – Oman

Chile – California

France – Tunisia

Useful Fog and Precipitation Science Papers

Theses Related to Fog Collection

OVERVIEW STUDIES

Eugster, W., 2008: Fog Research. Die Erde, 139, Vol 1-2, Special Issue “Fog Research”, pp one – 10.

Kerfoot, O., 1968: Mist Precipitation on Vegetation. Forest Abstracts, 29, 8 – 20.

Meigs, P. 1966: Geography of Coastal Deserts. UNESCO, Paris, Arid Zone Research-XXVIII, pp 157. [This is an extensive review focused on coastal deserts of the world, with maps.]

Moeller, D., 2008: On the History of the Scientific Exploration of Fog, Dew, Rain and Other Atmospheric Water. Die Erde, 139, Vol 1-2, Special Issue “Fog Research”, pp 11 – 44.

Otto Klemm, Robert S. Schemenauer, Anne Lummerich, Pilar Cereceda, Victoria Marzol, David Corell, Johan van Heerden, Dirk Reinhard, Tseggai Gherezghiher, Jana Olivier, Pablo Osses, Jamal Sarsour, Ernst Frost, María Estrela, José Valiente, and Gebregiorgis Mussie Fessehaye 2012: Fog as a Fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives. AMBIO, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp 221-234

Schemenauer, R. S., 1991: Sites in Arid Countries Where the Collection of Fog Water by Artificial Collectors or Vegetation Has Been Documented. [This unpublished table and extensive list of 113 references was background information for the publication: Schemenauer, R.S. and P. Cereceda: Fog water collection in arid coastal locations.  Ambio, 20, #7, 303-308.

Schemenauer, R.S. and P. Cereceda 1991: Fog water collection in arid coastal locations. Ambio, 20, #7, 303-308

Schemenauer, R.S., and P. Cereceda 1994: A Proposed Standard Fog Collector for Use in High-elevation Regions. J. Applied Meteorology, Vol. 33, pp 1313-1322.

Schemenauer, R.S., and P. Cereceda 1994: The Role of Wind in Rainwater Catchment and Fog Collection. Water International, Vol 19, pp 70-76.

Schemenauer, R.S., and P. Cereceda 1994: Fog Collection’s Role In Water Planning For Developing Countries. United Nations Journal Natural Resources Forum 199418 (2) pp 91-100.

Schemenauer, R.S., and P. Cereceda 2000: The Role of Canadian Institutions in the Development of the Fog Collection Technology Currently Being Used in Arid Regions of the World. 8th Biennial Jerusalem Conference in Canadian Studies of the Israel Association for Canadian Studies and the Halbert Centre for Canadian Studies, Jerusalem, Israel, 25-29 June 2000.

Schemenauer, R.S., P. Cereceda and P. Osses, 2003: The Complementary aspects of projects to collect rain, fog and dew. Book contribution for 11th Intl. Rainwater Catchment Systems Assoc. meeting, Texcoco, Mexico, 25-29 August, pp. 20. Available on CD.

Schemenauer, R.S., and P.I. Joe 1989: The Collection Efficiency of a Massive Fog Collector. Atmospheric Research, 24, pp 53-69.

Shanyengana, E.S., R.D. Sanderson, M.K. Seely and R.S. Schemenauer 2003: Testing greenhouse shade nets for the collection of fog for use as a water supply.  J. Water Supply: Research & Technology-AQUA (London, UK), 52.3, 237-241.

PAPERS PER COUNTRY

CABO VERDE (CAPE VERDE)

Anonymous, c 1992: Islas de Cabo Verde, Data, Census, Water Supply, Fog Collection on Islands of Santiago and Sao Vicente, pp 41.

Anonymous, c 1992: Islas de Cabo Verde, Data, Census, Water Supply, Fog Collection on Islands of Santiago and Sao Vicente, p1 of color slides.

Anonymous, c 1992: Islas de Cabo Verde, Data, Census, Water Supply, Fog Collection on Islands of Santiago and Sao Vicente, p2 of color slides.

Juvik, J. O., C. Dos Anjos and D. Nullet, 1995: Direct Cloud Water Recovery by Inertial Impaction: Implications for Large Scale Water Supply in the Cape Verity Islands. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 51, 89-96.

Mayer Goncalves, M. and F. Reis Cunha, 1992: Captacao De Agua Do Nevoeiro Em Cabo Verde Uma Achega Para O Abastecimento Familiar.  Comun. IICT, Ser. Cienc. Agrarias, # 8, 55-64.

Reis Cunha, F., 1964: The Collection of Fog Water in Cape Vert Islands. Estudios Agronomicos, 5, pp121-172.

Sabino, A. A., c 1991: Projecto Piloto de Captacao de Agua Das Nuvens Em Sao Vicente Monte Verde. Instituto Nacional de Investigacac Agraria/MPAAR, pp 41.

Sabino, A.A., and J. Moreno 1998: Fog Water Collection in Cape Verde Islands: An Alternative Source of Water for Agriculture and Domestic Use. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 445-448, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

CANADA

Beauchamp, S. and R. Tordon, 1993: Marine Fog Chemistry and Acid Deposition at Two Coastal Sites in Atlantic Canada. Conference on The Scientific Challenge of Our Changing Environment, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, 3 – 5 March, pp 64-65. [Measurements were made in Cape Forchu, Nova Scotia and Cape Race, Newfoundland.]

Comtois, P. and R.S. Schemenauer, 1991: Tree pollen viability in areas of high pollutant deposition. Aerobiologia (Italy), 7, 144-151. [Pollen viability in Québec was shown to decrease at elevations where fog was frequent.]

Cox, R.M., J. Spavold-Tims and R.N. Hughes, 1989: Acid Fog and Ozone: Their Possible Role in Birch Deterioration around the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 48, pp 263 – 276.

Schemenauer, R.S., 1986:  Acidic deposition to forests:  The 1985 Chemistry of High Elevation Fog Project.  Atmosphere-Ocean, 24, 303-328.

Schemenauer, R.S., C.M. Banic and N. Urquizo, 1995: High elevation fog and precipitation chemistry in southern Quebec, Canada. Atmospheric Environment, 29, 2235-2252.

Walmsley, J.L., R.S. Schemenauer and H.A. Bridgman, 1996: A method for estimating the hydrologic input from fog in mountainous terrain.   J. Applied Meteor., 35, 2237-2249.

Yin, X. and P.A. Arp, 1994: Fog contributions to the water budget of forest and watersheds in the Canadian Maritime provinces: a generalized algorithm for low elevations. Atmosphere-Ocean, 32, (3), 553-566.

CHILE

Carter, V., R.S. Schemenauer, P.Osses and H. Streeter, 2007: The Atacama Desert fog collection project at Falda Verde, Chile. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Biggs, A. and P. Cereceda, eds., La Serena, Chile, 22-27 July,      pp. 391-394.

Carter, V., R.S. Schemenauer, P.Osses and H. Streeter 2007: The Atacama Desert fog collection project at Falda Verde, Chile. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Biggs, A. and P. Cereceda, eds., La Serena, Chile, 22-27 July pp. 391-394.

Cereceda,P., H. Larrain, P. Lázaro, P. Osses, R.S. Schemenauer and X. Boroevic 2000: La Niebla, Agua Potable Para Zonas Rurales. RevistaTerra Australis, Chile publicado en 2000, Vol 45, pp 143-160.

Cereceda, P. and R.S. Schemenauer, 1991: The occurrence of fog in Chile. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 30, #8, 1097-1105.

Cereceda, P., R.S. Schemenauer and M. Suit, 1992: An alternative water supply for Chilean coastal desert villages.  Intl. J. Water Resources Development, 8, 53-59.

Cereceda, P., 1993: Fog Collection Rates Measured at four Locations at the El Tofo Fog Collection Site in Chile over the Period of October 1992 to December 1993. Geography Department of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in Santiago, pp 10.

Cereceda, P., H. Larrain, P. Osses, M. Farias and I. Egana, 2008: The Climate of the Coast and Fog Zone in the Tarapaca Region, Atacama Desert, Chile.. Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 301 – 311.

Cereceda, P., H. Larrain, P. Osses, M. Farias and I. Egana, 2008: The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog and Its Relation to Fog Oases in the Atacama Desert, Chile.. Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 312 – 323.

Edwards, M., P. Cereceda, and R.S. Schemenauer 2001: Community Involvement in the fog water collection system for Chungungo. Chile. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 277-279, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Folllmann, G., 1963: Nordchilenische Nebeloasen. UMSCHAU, Heft 4, pp101-104.

Kummerow, J., V. Matte and F. Schlegel, 1961: Zum Problem der Nebelwaelder an der zentralchilenischen Kueste. Journal citation not available, pp 135-145. Title translation: On the problem of the fog forests on the central Chilean coast.

Kummerow, J., 1962: Quantitative Messungen des Nebelniederschlages im Walde von Fray-Jorge an der nordchilenischen Kiiste. Naturwissenschaften, 49, pp 203-204. Title translation: Quantitative measurements of fog precipitation in the forest of Fray-Jorge on the north Chilean coast.

Kummerow, J., 1962: Aporte Al Conocimiento De Las Condiciones Climaticas Del Bosque De Fray Jorge. Universidad De Chile, Facultad De Agronomia, Boletin Tecnico,No 24, Nov 1966, pp 10. Title translation: Contribution to the Knowledge of the Climatic Conditions of the Fray Jorge Forest.

Montecinos, S., P. Cereceda and D. Rivera, 2018: Fog collection and its relationship with local meteorological variables in a semiarid zone in Chile.  Atmósfera 31(2), 143-153 (2018) doi: 10.20937/ATM.2018.31.02.03.

Montecinos, S., D. Carvajal, P. Cereceda and M. Concha, 2018: Collection efficiency of fog events. Atmospheric Research 209 (2018) 163–169.

Schemenauer, R.S. and P. Cereceda 1992: The quality of fog water collected for domestic and agricultural use in Chile. J. Applied Meteorology, 31, #3, 275-290.

Schemenauer, R.S., P. Cereceda and N. Carvajal, 1987:  Measurements of fog water deposition and their relationships to terrain features. J. Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26, 1285-1291.

Schemenauer, R. S., 1987: Summary of Meteorological Data Collected at the El Tofo Summit and Ridge Sites In Chile during the Camanchaca Project from 1987 to 1989. Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, pp 128. [This summary archives important meteorological information on the conditions at two locations that were part of the long-running fog water collection Project in Chile.]

COLOMBIA

Molina, José M., and Concepción M. Escobar 2008: Fog Collection Variability in the Andean Mountain Range of Southern Colombia. Die Erde, 139 (1-2), pp. 127-140.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Schemenauer, R.S., P. Osses, F. Lara, C. Zywina and P. Cereceda 2001: Fog Collection in the Dominican Republic. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 235-238, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

ECUADOR

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1993: Proyecto de Captacion del Agua de la Niebla, Evaluacion del Recurso Niebla en la Costa Central del Ecuador entre las Poblaciones de Salango y Puerto Cayo, Francisco Mena Duran, Jan 1993, Quito, Ecuador, pp 42.

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1993: Proyecto de Captacion del Agua de la Niebla, Evaluacion del Recurso Niebla en la Costa Central del Ecuador entre las Poblaciones de Salango y Puerto Cayo, Francisco Mena Duran, Jan 1993, Quito, Ecuador, Color Photos of SFCs, pp 5.

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1993: Informe del Proyecto Experimental de Captacion de Agua de Niebla “Machalilla”, July 1993, Quito, Ecuador, pp 34. [There are seven sites ranging in elevation from 225 to 450 m in elevation. They are oriented to the west and southwest. Measurements are made with the one square metre Standard Fog Collector.]

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1993: Captacion de Agua de Niebla “Pululahua”, July 1993, Quito, Ecuador, pp 27.

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1992: Sintesis de La Estrategia y de Los Componentes, Programa de Autodesarrollo Ecologico Para El Area de Amortiguamiento del Parque Nacional Machalilla, Nov 1992, Quito, Ecuador, pp 54.

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1993: Proyecto Pululahua, 1993, Quito, Ecuador, pp 10. [This is a two-page cover letter plus 9 pages of measurements made with a 1 m² Standard Fog Collector at the Pululahua site. The site is located on a crater rim on the north edge of Quito at an elevation of 2830 m.]

Fondo Ecuatoriano Canadiense de Desarrollo (FECD), Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1994: Captacion de Agua de Niebla Pululahua, 1994, Quito, Ecuador, pp 42.

Fundacion Grupo Esquel Ecuador (FGEE), Centro de Investigaciones Sociales Alternativas (CISA), 1993: Captacion de Agua de Niebla Machalilla, Jan 1993, Quito, Ecuador, pp 42. [Includes a report from CISA on Fog Collection at Pululahua and also some media articles.]

Henderson B. and D. Falk 2001: Fog Water Collection in Ecuador: An Appropriate Technology for the Rural Poor? Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 281-284, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Henderson, B. and D. Falk, Transfer of Fog Water Collection Technology, an alternative source of water for Ecuador’s rural poor. Report in preparation for project at Pachamama Grande, c 1995, Quito, Ecuador, pp 89.

Hunnisett, G., 1992: Final Report Ecuador Fog Water Evaluation Trip, CIDA Lima, Sept 1992, pp 20.

Hunnisett, G., 1992: Final Report Ecuador Fog Water Evaluation Trip, CIDA Lima, Sept 1992, Color Photo Section, pp 5.

Pucara Proyecto, 1993: Proyecto La Niebla Fuente Alternativa. pp 20. [These are the field records of measurements using the one square metre Standard Fog Collectors at the Pucara site.]

Topographic map showing the areas where the early Fog Collection Projects Took place in Ecuador. These projects in the 19 Nineties Took place around Quito but also along the coast and in the Pachamama Grande Village to the south of Chimborazo.

Urquizo, N., 1993: Report on the Inspection Trip to Ecuador. Submitted to Dr. Robert Schemenauer, Toronto, 9 February 1993, pp 14.

ETHIOPIA

Ali, Seid A. 2001: Potential Use of Fog as an Alternative Water Resource in the Dry and Semi-Arid Mountain Chains of Northern and Eastern Ethiopia. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 215-218, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Shanko, D. 2001: Fog Climatology in Ethiopia. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 441-444, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

GUATEMALA

Garcia, J. L., 2004:  REPORTE PARCIAL PROYECTO COLECCIÓN DE AGUA DE NEBLINAS, LAGO ATITLAN, GUATEMALA 2004. FogQuest report, pp21. [Title translation: Partial fog water collection project report, Lake Atitlan, Guatemala 2004.]

Holder, C.D. 1998: Fog Precipitation in the Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Rosato, M., F. Rojas and R. Schemenauer, 2010: Not just beneficiaries: fostering participation and local management capacity in the Tojquia fog-collection project, Guatemala. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany, 25-30 July, pp. 248-251.

Rosato, M., 2004: Guatemala Fog Collection Project: Field Trip Report. Prepared for FogQuest: sustainable water solutions FogQuest, 26 January 2004, pp 37. [Project report on work in the Lake Atitlan region of Guatemala.]

Schemenauer, R.S., J.L. Garcia and V. Carter, 2004: Interim Report on the Guatemalan Fog Collection Project, 2004. FogQuest: sustainable water solutions, Toronto, Canada, 3 Nov. 2004, pp.12.

Schemenauer, R.S., M. Rosato and V. Carter 2007: Fog collection projects in Tojquia and La Ventosa, Guatemala. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Biggs, A. and P. Cereceda, eds., La Serena, Chile, 22-27 July, pp. 383-386.

Schemenauer, R.S., N. Zanetta, M. Rosato and V. Carter, 2016: The Tojquia, Guatemala Fog Collection Project 2006 to 2016. 7th International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Wroclaw, Poland 24 – 29 July 2016, pp 210-213.

Schemenauer, R.S., M. Rosato and V. Carter, 2007: Fog collection projects in Tojquia and La Ventosa, Guatemala. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Biggs, A. and P. Cereceda, eds., La Serena, Chile, 22-27 July,  pp 383-386.

HAITI

Schemenauer, R.S., J.L. Garcia, and P. Osses 2002: Evaluation of the Fog Collection Potential on the Saganac Plateau, Haiti – Final Report. Final Report for Oxfam Quebec, June 2002.

HONDURAS

Carr, A. F. 1949: La Montana Llorona. Science Monthly, 68, 225-234. [Title translation: The Weeping Mountain.]

ISRAEL

Beysens, D.A. 1998: Dew Recovery: Old Dreams and Actual Results. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 269-272, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Heusinkveld, B.G., A.F.G. Jacobs and S. Berkowicz 1998: Dew And Dew Collection In The Negev Desert. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 257-259, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Schemenauer, R.S., and P. Cereceda 2000: The Potential for the Use of Fog Collection as a Water Resource in Israel. 8th Biennial Jerusalem Conference in Canadian Studies of the Israel Association for Canadian Studies and the Halbert Centre for Canadian Studies, Jerusalem, Israel, 25-29 June 2000.

JORDAN

Al Jayyousi, O.R. and M.S. Mohsen, 1999: Evaluation of Fog Collection in Jordan. J. CIWEM, 13, June 1999, pp 195-199.

Tarawneh, S., 2004: Fog water harvesting five sites south of Mazar-Karak (1992-1994) Jordan. Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol. 43 (2004), No. 1, 55-65.

KENYA

Ingraham, N.L. and R. A. Matthews, 1988: Fog Drip as a Source of Groundwater Recharge in Northern Kenya. Water Resources Research, 24, No 8, pp 1406 – 1410.

MEXICO

Cereceda, P., 1995: Potencial de Coleccion de Agua de Niebla en Mexico. Report 05 – 95, Instituto de Geografia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, San Diego, Chile, pp 17. Title translation: Collection Potential of Fog Water in Mexico.

García-García, Fernando, and Víctor Zarraluqui 2008: A Fog Climatology for Mexico. Die Erde, 139 (1-2), pp. 45-60.

Vogelmann, H. W., 1973: Research report – fog precipitation in the Cloud Forest of Eastern Mexico. Bio. Sci., 23, pp 96 – 100.

MOROCCO

Marzol, Maria Victoria, and José Luís Sánchez Megía 2008: Fog Water Harvesting in Ifni, Morocco. An Assessment of Potential and Demand. Die Erde, 139 (1-2), pp. 97-119.

NAMIBIA

Eckardt, F.D. and R.S. Schemenauer 1998: Fogwater chemistry in the Namib Desert, Namibia. Atmos. Environ., 32, No. 14/15, 2595-2599.

Hamilton III, W. J., J.R. Henschel and M. Seely, 2003: Fog collection by Namib Desert beetles. Rebuttal to Parker, A. R. And Lawrence, C. R. (2001). Nature 414, 33 – 34. [This discusses how beetles in the Namib desert actually make use of fog water.]

Hamilton, W.J. and M.K. Seely, 1976: Fog basking by the Namib Desert beetle. Nature, 262, 22 July, pp 285-286.

Henschel, J., V. Mtuleni, N. Grunkowski, M. Seely and S. E. Shanyengana, 1998: NAMFOG: Application of Fog-Collecting Systems Phase 1: Evaluation of Fog Water Harvesting. Desert Research Foundation of Namibia (DRFN), Gobabeb, May 1998, pp 83

Mtuleni, V., J.R. Henschel and M.K. Seely 1998: Evaluation of Fog-Harvesting Potential in Namibia. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 179-182, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Seely, M.K. and J.R. Henschel 1998: The Climatology of Namib Fog. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 353-356, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Seely, M.K., J.R. Henschel and M. Robertson 1998: The Ecology of Fog in Namib Desert Dunes. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Shanyengana, E.S., J.R. Henschel, V.S. Mtuleni, E. Mwenya, and M.K. Seely 2001: Exploring Fog as a supplementary water resource in Namibia. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 273-276, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

NEPAL

Apigian, J.H., 2005: A Critical Look at the Development of Fog Water Collection in Nepal. Report for Nepal Community Development Foundation (NCDF) and Nepal Water for Health (NEWAH), Kathmandu, Nepal, March 2005.

MacQuarrie, K.I.A., A. Pokhrel, Y. Shrestha, P. Osses, R.S. Schemenauer, F. Vitez, K. Kowalchuk and R. Taylor 2001: Results from a high elevation fog water supply project in Nepal. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, Schemenauer, R.S. and H. Puxbaum, eds., St. John’s, Canada, 15-20 July, ISBN 0-9683887-1-X, pp. 227-229.

Pokhrel, A. and K.I.A. MacQuarrie 2001: Climatology of Hindu Kush. Himalayas; potential for fog water collection. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 257-259, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Bajracharya, D., and A. Pokhrel 2001: Implementation method and impact of fog water supply schemes: a case study in the middle hills of Eastern Nepal. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 261-263, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Schemenauer, R.S., B. Bignell and T. Makepeace, 2016: Fog Collection Projects in Nepal: 1997 to 2016. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Wroclaw, Poland 24 – 29 July 2016, pp 187-190.

OMAN (The Sultanate of Oman)

Alesh, Salem A. 1998: Work Done on Fog and Fog Collection (Moisture Capture) in the Sultanate of Oman. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 417-420, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Alesh, Salem A., 1998: Work Done on Fog and Fog Collection in the Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of Water Resources, Salalah, Oman, July 1998, 19 pp.

Barros, J. and R. P. Whitcombe, 1989: Fog and Rain Water Collection in Southern Region 1989 Research Programme, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region, Sultanate of Oman, December 1989, 173 pp.

Brend S. 1998: Fog Assisted Wildlife Conservation: The Arabian Oryx Sanctuary in Oman. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 229-231, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

COWIconsult, Nov 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Main Report, pp 170. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

COWIconsult, Nov 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Main Report, Map of Boreholes and Water Sources. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

COWIconsult, Nov 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Main Report, Map of Villages. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

COWIconsult, June 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Report Number 1 Collection Screen Design, pp 39. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

COWIconsult, June 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Report Number 2 Site Identification, pp 19. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

COWIconsult, Nov 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Technical Appendices, pp 224. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

COWIconsult, Nov 1990: Dhofar Khareef Studies, Feasibility of Fog and Rain Water Collection and Guidelines for Pilot Projects; Technical Appendices, pp 224. – Photos. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

PCDESR, 1988: Photos of early fog collectors using metal screens in the Dhofar Region of Southern Oman. The photos were provided to Robert S Schemenauer by the Planning Committee for the Development and Environment in the Southern Region (PCDESR), pp18. [Each photo is followed by a short description in English and in Arabic.]

Price, M.R.S., A.B.H. al-Harthy and R.P. Whicombe, 1985: Fog Moisture and Its Ecological Effects in Oman. Arid Lands Today and Tomorrow Conference, Tucson, Arizona, October 20 – 25, pp 21.

Schemenauer, R.S. and P. Cereceda 1992: Monsoon cloud water chemistry on the Arabian Peninsula. Atmospheric Environment, 26A, 1583-1587.

Schemenauer, R., and P. Cereceda, 1989: An Investigation of the Feasibility of Monsoon Fog and Drizzle Collection in the Dhofar Region of Southern Oman. Report to the Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region of the Sultanate of Oman, 25 September, 1989, pp 26. Project File: UNDP/WMO Project OMA/89/005.

Schemenauer, R., and P. Cereceda, 1989: Comments on the 1990 Dhofar Khareef Project. Report to the Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region of the Sultanate of Oman and to COWIconsult, 30 September, 1990, pp 14.

Schemenauer, R., 1989: Potential for Fog Water Collection in the Dhofar Region of Southern Oman. Report to the World Meteorological Organization Technical Coordination Division, 11 April, 1989, pp 33.

Whitcombe, R., Commentary on Six Sites, Selection of a Site on Jebel Qara For Fog Water Measurements 1989 Monsoon, July 1989, pp 4. (Prepared for: Sultanate of Oman, Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region).

Whitcombe, R.W. and R. Mactaggart, 1988: Fog Moisture Harvesting – Proposal for Exchange Visits by Specialists Working and Oman Than South America. Prepared for Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region, 28 November, pp 5. [This provides some early measurements of fog collection and a description of the sites in the Dhofar region of Oman.]

Whitcombe, R., 1989: Selection of a Site on Jebel Qara For Fog Water Measurements, 1989 Monsoon (Commentary on Six Sites). Prepared for Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Southern Region, Salalah, Oman, 5 July, pp 4.

PERU

Cereceda, P., Schemenauer, R.S., Suit, M. 1993: Producción de Agua de Nieblas Costeras en Perú. Alisios (3) Pp 63-74.

Cereceda, P. and R. S. Schemenauer, 1994: El uso de las nieblas como recurso hidrico en la Comunidad de Collanac, Peru. Report SC94-01, Jan 1994, for IDRC, Canada, pp 53. [Data from a fog collection project near Lima, including mesh comparisons and measurements from the SFC and omnidirectional fog collectors.]

European Community Directorate General XII, 1995-1999: Fog as a new water resource for the sustainable development of the ecosystem of the Peruvian and Chilean coastal desert. Contract Nº TS3 CT94 0324.

Leon, B., c 1994: Evaluacion del Potencial Hidrico de las Neblinas del Cinturon Ecologico de Manchay. Tecnides report for IDRC Canada, pp 178. [This report contains field measurements of fog collection rates using Standard Fog Collectors at the Collanac and Manchay sites near Lima, Peru.]

Pinche, C., 1985: Uso agaria de la niebla. Agro. Rev. Banco Agrario del Peru, Ano II, No 4, June 1985. pp 33-36.

Pinche, C., 1989: Fog as a source of water at lomas along the Peruvian coastal desert. 5th WMO Conference on Cloud Physics and Weather Modification Research, 8 – 12 May, Beijing, China (not presented) WMO Reports, No.12, Vol II, pp 4.

Pinche Laurre, C., 1992: Exploracion del recurso agua de niebla en San Juan de Marcona. La Meteorologia en el mundo iberoamericano (Madrid), Ano II, June-Sept 1992, No 9, pp 19-23. Title translation: [Exploration of the fog water resource in San Juan de Marcona (450 km south of Lima).]

Pinche, C., 1992: Atrapanieblas, Rev. Agronoticias, #149, May 1992, Lima, pp 4.

Schemenauer, R.S. and P. Cereceda. 1993: Meteorological conditions at a coastal fog collection site in Peru. Atmósfera, 6, 175-188.

Trejo, R.H., 1992: Informe Final Proyecto Reforestation en Zonas Aridas (Peru). Report (partial) produced for INIAA, CIDA (Canada) and DGIFVS, Lima, Peru, pp 60. Includes sections on Recuperacion de lomas degradadas mediante la captacion de agua de neblina, en Lomas de Atiquipa, Mejia y Bajada del Guerrero. This is introductory work to the subsequent large EU funded project in Mejia cited elsewhere. [Translation of section title: Recovery of degraded hills by capturing fog water, in hills of Atiquipa…]

Photos of large fog collectors at the Lomas de Lachay site in Peru sent to Dr. Robert Schemenauer in Canada by Gary Hunnisett, Canadian International Development Agency, Lima, Peru, in 1992.

REUNION ISLAND

Gabrielle, G. and L. Jauze, 2008: Fog water interception by Sophora denudata trees in a Reunion upper- montane forest, Indian Ocean. Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 338 – 351.

SOUTH AFRICA

Olivier, J. 1998: A High Elevation Fog Water Collection Experiment in South Africa. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 441-444, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Olivier, J. 2001: A Prototype Fog Water Collection System in the Northern Province of South Africa. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 239-242, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Rautenbach, C.deW. and J. Olivier 2001: An operational “Water from Fog” initiative at Lepelfontein along the West Coast of South Africa. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 243-245, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

SPAIN CANARY ISLANDS 

Acosta-Baladon, A.N., 1973: Cultivos Enarenados. Publicacion A-55, Inst. Nac. De Meteorlogia, Madrid, Spain pp 219. [Early fog collection measurements in the Canary Islands. Only selected pages are copied.]

Estrela, M. J., J. A. Valiente, D. Corell and M. M. Millan, 2008: Fog Collection in the Western Mediterranean Basin (Valencia region, Spain). Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 324 – 337.

Glas. G. 1764. The fountain tree. Extracted from: History of the Canary Islands, by R.F. Wood and published in Weather XV, No. 11, Nov 1960, pp.374-375.

Marzol, M.V., P. Valladares 1998: Evaluation of fog water collection in Anaga (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 449-452, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

Marzol, M.V. 2001: Fog: Drinking water for Rural Zones. Proceedings of Second Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 247-250, July 15-20 Vancouver, Canada.

Marzol, M. V. and J. L. S. Megia, 2008: Fog Water Harvesting in Ifni, Morocco. An Assessment of Potential and Demand. Die Erde, 139, Vol 1-2, Special Issue “Fog Research”, pp 97 – 119.

Marzol, M.V., 2008: Temporal Characteristics and Fog Water Collection during Summer in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 352 – 361.

Perez, P.V., 1918: Demonstracion cientifica de como el arbolado precipita el agua de las neblinas en sitios adecuados. Real Sociedad Espanola de los Amigos del Arbol, No. 77, pp 1-2. [This discusses water collection by the Holy Tree on the island of El Hierro in the Canary Islands.]

ST. HELENA

Correspondence and St. Helena Island Information, 1997: some background information for anyone interested in this island in the South Atlantic Ocean.

Limm, P., K. Simonin and T. Dawson, c 2010: Foliar Uptake of Fog in the Coast Redwood Ecosystem: a Novel Drought-Alleviation Strategy Shared by Most Redwood Forest Plants.  GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-238, pp 273-281.

#USA – CALIFORNIA – HAWAII

Anderson, J.B., R.E. Baumgardner, V.A. Mohnen and J.J. Bowser, 1999: Cloud Chemistry in the Eastern United States, As Sampled from Three High Elevation Sites along the Appalachian Mountains. Atmospheric Environment, 33, pp 5105 – 5114. [This paper includes a comparison with the Canadian Chemistry of High Elevation Fog data obtained in the province of Québec.]

Azvedo, J. and D.L. Morgan, 1974: Fog Precipitation in Coastal California Forests. Ecology, 55, pp 1135 – 1141. [Eel River Valley in Northern California.]

Bower, C. A., 1974: Fog and Wind Regimes of the Eureka-Arcata Coastal Region of Northern California. Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah, May 1974. pp 148. [A detailed study of the fog processes and fog climatology in coastal Northern California.]

Brewer, R.L., R.J. Gordon and L.S. Shepard, 1983: Chemistry of Mist and Fog from the Los Angeles Urban Area. Atmospheric Environment, 17, No 11, pp 2267 – 2270.

Carlson, N. K., 1961: Fog and Lava Rock, Pines and Pineapple. American Forests, 67, pp 8 – 11 and 58 – 59. [This has information on fog and fog collection by pine trees on the island of Lanaii, Hawaii.]

Dawson, T. E., 1998: Fog in the California Redwood Forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia (1998) 117:476±485.

Ekern, P. C., 1964: Direct Interception of Cloud Water on Lanaihale, Hawaii. Soil Sci. Soc. Ame. 18, Proc., pp 419-421. hours back

Goodman, J., 1977: The Microstructure of California Coastal Fog and Stratus. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, Oct 1977, pp 1056-1067. [Measurements of the structure and origin of fog at a site in San Francisco.]

Goodman, J., 1985: The Collection of Fog Drip. Water Resources Research, 21, No 3, 392 – 394. [Fog measurements in San Francisco Bay.]

Ingraham, N.L. and R. A. Matthews, 1995: The importance of fog drip water to vegetation: Point Reyes Peninsula, California. J. Hydrology, 164, pp 269 – 285.

Juvik, J.O. and P.C. Ekern, 1978: A Climatology of Mountain Fog on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Island. Technical Report 118 for Office of Water Research and Technology, Washington. Prepared by Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Pp 74.

Kimball, D., R. Jagels, G. A. Gordon, K. C. Weathers and J. Carlisle, 1988: Differences between New England Coastal Fog and Mountain Cloud Water Chemistry. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 39, pp 383 – 393.

McAdie, A., 1901: Fog Studies on Mount Tamalpais. Popular Science Monthly, 59, pp 535 – 541. [San Francisco, California.]

Mohnen, V. A. and R. J. Vong, 1993: A climatology of cloud chemistry for the eastern United States derived from the mountain cloud chemistry project. Environ. Rev., 1, pp 38 – 54.

Noonkester, V. R. And E. G. C. LeLagne, 1976: Fog Related to Santa Ana Conditions in Southern California – Multisensor observations of fog and mesoscale data provide evidence that the formation and movement of the fog is controlled by mesoscale low-pressure eddies and troughs. Naval Air Systems Command, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, California, 5 November 1976, pp 71.

Oberlander, G. T., 1956: Summer Fog Precipitation on the San Francisco Peninsula. Ecology, 37, pp 851 – 852.

Patton, C. P., 1956: Climatology of Summer Fogs in the San Francisco Bay Area. University Of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, pp 89. [This documents the climatology as well as the causes and distribution of summer fog in the San Francisco area.]

Parson, J.J., 1960: Fog drip from coastal stratus, with special reference to California. Weather, XV, pp 50 – 62. [Berkeley, California.]

Prat, H., 1953: Fog as a Dominant Factor for Plant Life on Some Parts of the Pacific Coast of North America. Proc. of the 7th Pacific Science Congress, New Zealand, 1949, 5, pp 152 – 156.

Schemenauer, R.S., C.M. Banic and N. Urquizo, 1995: High elevation fog and precipitation chemistry in southern Quebec, Canada. Atmospheric Environment, 29, 2235-2252.

Scholl, M. A., S. B. Gingerich and G. W. Tribble, 2002: The Influence of Microclimates and Fog on Stable Isotope Signatures Used in the Interpretation of Regional Hydrology – East Maui, Hawaii. J. Hydrol., 264, pp 170-184.

Vong, R. J., J. T. Sigmon and S. F. Mueller, 1991: Cloud Water Deposition to Appalachian Forests. Environ. Sci. Technol., 25, No 6, pp 1014 – 1021.

Weathers, K.C., et al. (12 authors), 1986: A regional acidic cloud/fog water event in the eastern United States. Nature, 20 February, 319, No 6055, pp 657 – 658. [The pH of the fog was extremely low during this event between 2.8 and 3.1.]

Witiw, M. R. and S. LaDochy, 2008: Trends in fog frequencies in the Los Angeles Basin. Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 293 – 300.

VENEZUELA

Gordon, C. A., R. Herrera and T. C. Hutchinson, 1994: Studies of Fog Events at Two Cloud Forests Near Caracas, Venezuela – II. Chemistry of Fog. Atmos. Environ., 28, No 2, pp 323 – 337.

Gordon, C. A., 1992: Fog Water Chemistry and Epiphytic Lichens As Indicators of Pollutant Input to Venezuelan Cloud Forests. Thesis for the degree of Master of Science in the University of Toronto, Department of Botany and Institute for Environmental Studies, pp 47 (selected pages from a thesis that is over 200 pages in length).

Rosato, M. 2005: Fog Collection Evaluation Project: Isla de Margarita, Venezuela. Final Trip Report, January – March 2005.

 

COMPARATIVE STUDIES

 

CHILE- CALIFORNIA

Dawson, T.E. and Patricia E. Vidiella, 1998: Plant-fog interactions in California and Chile. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, Schemenauer, R.S. and H. Bridgman, eds., Vancouver, Canada, 19-24 July, ISBN 0-9683887-0-1, pp 225-228.

CHILE – GUATEMALA

Rojas, F., V. Carter  and M. Rosato, 2012:  Fog Collection Technology Transfer and Co-Creation projects in Falda Verde, Chile and Tojquia, Guatemala.  Paper presented by Fernanda Rojas at the May 2012 Tech4Dev International Conference in Lausanne, Switzerland: Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Way to Reduce Poverty? pp 6.

CHILE-NAMIBIA-OMAN

Eckardt, F.D. and R.S. Schemenauer 1998: The Chemistry of Namib Desert Fog in Comparison with Coastal Desert Fog of Chile and Oman. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 187-190, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

CHILE-PERU-OMAN

Cereceda, P. and R.S. Schemenauer, 1998: Fogwater collection at El Tofo, Chile and other coastal sites in South America and Arabia.  Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fog and Fog Collection, Schemenauer, R.S. and H. Bridgman, eds., Vancouver, Canada, 19-24 July, ISBN 0-9683887-0-1, pp. 409-411

CHILE-PERU

Osses, P., P. Cereceda, R.S. Schemenauer, H. Larrain and P. Lázaro, 1998: Diferencias y similitudes de la niebla entre Iquique (Chile) y Mejía (Perú). Revista Norte Grande (Chile), 25, 7-13.

FRANCE-TUNISIA

Beysens, D.A., I. Milimouk and V. Nikolayev 1998: Dew Recovery: Old Dreams And Actual Results. Proceedings of First Conference on Fog and Fog Collection Pp 269-272, July 19-24 Vancouver, Canada.

 

USEFUL FOG & PRECIPITATION SCIENCE PAPERS

Acosta Baladon, A.N., 1995: Agricultural uses of all occult precipitation. Agrometeorological Applications Associates, Ornex, France, pp 164.

Brandenburg Technical University, 1999: Cloud and Air Characteristics and the Scientific Activities at the Brocken Station. Pp 24. [This is the history and overview of the development of the first cloud chemistry research monitoring station in Europe on Mt Brocken in the Harz Mountains of Germany.]

BRUN, R.J., W. LEWIS, P. J. PERKINS, and J. S. SERAFINI, c 1950: IMPINGEMENT OF CLOUD DROPLETS ON A CYLINDER AND PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING LIQUID.WATER CONTENT AND DROPLET SIZES IN SUPERCOOLED CLOUDS BY ROTATING MULTICYLINDER METHOD. Lewis flight propulsion laboratory Cleveland, Ohio, REPORT 1215.

Castellano, S., G.S. Mugnozza, G. Russo, D. Briassoulis, A. Mistriotis, S. Hemming and D. Waaijenberg, : DESIGN AND USE CRITERIA OF NETTING SYSTEMS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN ITALY. J. of Ag. Eng. – Riv. di Ing. Agr. (2008), 3, 31-42. [Good overview of how mesh is manufactured as well as a discussion of Raschel mesh.]

Cereceda, P., A. Cruzat, J. Ossandon and R. Schemenauer, 1996: Prospection, Evaluation and Construction of Fog Water Collection Systems. Report for International Development Research Centre Canada, prepared in Santiago, Chile, August 1996 pp 43.

Colomb, M., K. Hirech, P. Andre, J. J. Boreux, P. Lacote and J. Dufour, 2008: An innovative artificial fog production device improved in the European project “FOG”. Atmospheric Research, 87, special issue: 3rd International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew. Eds. S. M. Berkowicz, H. Rautenbach and J. Olivier, pp 242 – 251.

Collett, J.L., B.C. Daube, J.W. Munger and M.R. Hoffmann, 1990: A Comparison of Two Cloudwater/Fogwater Collectors: The Rotating Arm Collector and the Caltech Active Strand Cloud Water Collector. Atmospheric environment, 24A, No 7, pp 1685 – 1692.

Fernandez, D., et al. (10 authors), 2016: Mesh intercomparisons of fog water collected yield insight into the nature of fog-drip collection mechanisms. AGU 2016 A23E-0280 poster.

Franceschetti, G. ed.: 2000: The Use of Fog as a new water resource, possible applications. UNIPRESS, Italy, 2001, pp 73.

Gischler, C., 1991: The Missing Link in a production Chain, vertical obstacles to catch Camanchaca. UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for Latin America and the Caribbean, ROSTLAC, Montevideo, Uruguay, pp 210.

Hamilton III, William J, Henschel, Joh R., and Mary K. Seely 2003: Fog Collection by Namib Desert Beetles. South African Journal of Science, vol. 99, no. 3-4, pp. 181

Harr, R.D., 1982: Fog Drip in the Bull Run Municipal Watershed, Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin, American Water Resources Association, Vol 18, No 5, October, pp 785 – 789.

Hendershot, W.H., F. Courchesne and R.S. Schemenauer, 1992: Soil acidification along a topographic gradient on Roundtop Mountain, Quebec, Canada. Water, Air & Soil Pollution (USA), 61, 235-242.

Hori, T., 1953: Studies on Fogs – In Relation to Fog Preventing Forest. Institute of Low-Temperature Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, pp 86. [This is an important early work carried out in Japan documenting the interaction between forests and fog.]

Jaeschke, W. Und K.H. Enderle, editors, 1988: Chemistry and Physics of Fogwater Collection. Workshop, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 16 – 17 December 1986, pp 170. [Results of comparisons of passive and active fog water collectors. Also, comparison of the collection of water for chemical analysis. This is a good detailed review of the science as of 1986.]

Jordan, T.D., 1984: A Handbook of Gravity Flow Water Systems for Small Communities, Intermediate Technology Publications, an NGO, 1984, pp 128.

Langmuir, Irving, and Blodgett, Katherine B. 1945 and 1946: “Mathematical Investigation of Water Droplet Trajectories“. Discussion of Report, January 1945, published three times with similar titles, in NACA Icing Publications on 26 April 2022.

Lehnert, L. W., B. Thies and J. Bendix, 2020: A new high spatial resolution low stratus/fog retrieval for the Atacama Desert. Remote Sensing of the Environment 236 (2020) 111445., pp 11.

Lin, Z.Q., R.S. Schemenauer, P.H. Schuepp, N.N. Barthakur and G. Kennedy, 1997: Airborne metal pollutants in high elevation forests of southern Quebec, Canada, and their likely source regions.   J. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, 87, 41-54.

Lin, Z.Q., P.H. Schuepp, R.S. Schemenauer and G.G. Kennedy, 1995: Trace metal contamination in and on Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea (L) Mill.) foliage in southern Quebec, Canada.  Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 81, 175-191.

Lovett, G.M. and J.D. Kinsman, 1990: Atmospheric Pollutant Deposition to High Elevation Ecosystems. Atmos. Environ. 24A, No 11, pp 2767 – 2786.

Lopez-Garcia, D. and J. Rivera, 2013: Mechanical Characteristics of Raschel Mesh and Their Applications to the Design of Large Fog Collectors. . Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Yoko Hama, Japan, 19 – 24 may, p 17.

Mitchell, D. et al. (7 authors), 2020: Fog and fauna of the Namib Desert: past and future. ECOSPHERE ❖ www.esajournals.org, January 2020, volume 11 (1), article e02996, pp 40.

Nespor, V. and B. Sevruk, 1999: Estimation of Wind Induced Error of Rainfall Gauge Measurements Using a Numerical Simulation. J. Atmos. And Oceanic Tech., 16, pp 450 – 464.

Post, D. And H. A. Bridgman, 1991: Fog and Rainwater Composition in Rural SE Australia. J. Atmos. Chem., 13, pp 83 – 95.

Rivera, J.D., Aerodynamic collection efficiency of fog water collectors, Atmos. Res. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.08.005.

Schemenauer, R.S., C.M. Banic and N. Urquizo, 1995: High elevation fog and precipitation chemistry in southern Quebec, Canada. Atmospheric Environment, 29, 2235-2252.

Schemenauer, R.S. 1999: High Elevation Fog Sites. FogQuest Newsletter #1.

Schemenauer, R. S., I. Gultepe, and M. Witiw, 2015: Blind vision: the impact of fog on ecosystems and society. Meteorology Technology International, April, pp 50-54. http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/574f8129#/574f8129/1.

Schuepp, P.H., D.N. McGerrigle, H.G. Leighton, G. Paquette, R.S. Schemenauer and S. Kermasha, 1988: Observations on wet and dry deposition to foliage at a high elevation site. In, NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Acid Deposition at High Elevation Sites, M.H. Unsworth and D. Fowler (eds.),  Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 615-637.

Shanyengana, E.S., R.D. Sanderson, M.K. Seely and R.S. Schemenauer, 2003: Testing greenhouse shade nets for the collection of fog for use as a water supply.  J. Water Supply: Research & Technology-AQUA (London, UK), 52.3, 237-241.

Sobik, M. and M. Blas, 2013: Frequency of fog-a global outlook. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew, Yokohama, Japan, p 103.

Spielman, L. A., 1977: Particle Capture from Low-Speed Laminar Flows. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1977. 9: 297-319.

Unsworth, M. H., N. W. Shakespeare, A. E. Milner and T. S. Ganendra, 1979: The Frequency of Fog in the Midlands of England. Weather, February 1979, 34, No 2, pp 72 – 77.

Walmsley, J.L., R.S. Schemenauer and H.A. Bridgman, 1996: A method for estimating the hydrologic input from fog in mountainous terrain.   J. Applied Meteor., 35, 2237-2249.

White, G., 1776: Gilbert White’s observations on fog precipitation in England. Written to the honourable Daines Barrington, Selborne, 7 February 1776. Republished in The Journal of Meteorology, volume 3, number 28, April 1978, pp 115-117.

Winston, C., 1991: Water Quality Considerations in the Use of Fog Water Collection Systems As an Alternative Water Supply in Arid Areas. Report for Dr. Robert Schemenauer, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, pp 55. [Provides information on water quality requirements in different countries.]

THESES RELATED TO FOG COLLECTION

 

Bresci, E., 1998: Field Measurements and Wind Tunnel Trials on Fog Collectors. Universita Degli Studi Di Firenze, Facolta Di Agraria, pp 179.

Escobar Sabogal, C.M., 2005: Implementacion Y Evaluacion De Un Sistema De Coleccion De Neblina Como Fuente Alternativa De Agua, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Valle, Palmira, Colombia, 2005, pp 108.

Peterson, C. A., 1975: Fog Sequences on the Central California Coast with Examples. Thesis for Master of Science in Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, September 1975, pp 87.

Post, D., 1989: A Preliminary Study of Fog and Rain Water Quality in the Barrington Tops and New England Regions of New South Wales (Australia). Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Honours degree of Bachelor of Science in the University of Newcastle, October, 1989, pp 119.

Post, D., 1989: A Preliminary Study of Fog and Rain Water Quality in the Barrington Tops and New England Regions of New South Wales (Australia). Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Honours degree of Bachelor of Science in the University of Newcastle, October, 1989, pp 119.

Strain, P.M., 1974: The Analysis of Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides in Polluted Fogs. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Department of chemistry, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, pp 109.

Vera, J., 1991: Improving the Collection Efficiency of a Fog Water Collector. Thesis for the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science at the University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical Engineering, April 1991, pp 58.

 

 

 

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